Guide to the use of .htaccess for seo, redirects, urls, content crawl
Search engine optimizations (SEO) is all about making your website search engine friendly and help rank pages or posts. In this competitive market, you just cannot ignore SEO. .Htaccess is one of the important files of your website that lets you control your website functionality and how it interacts with the web. Thats why you need to customize it to maximize not only control but also search engine optimization. With the use of .htaccess for SEO, you can override the server configuration with your requirement.
Htaccess How To
# Apache configuration file
# httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/quickreference.html
# Note .htaccess files are an overhead, this logic should be in your Apache
# config if possible: httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/howto/htaccess.html
# 
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Default Lang and Basic Security Behavior
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# X-Powered-By hidden by default nobody will notice if you're using PHP or whatever
Header unset X-Powered-By
# Set by default UTF-8 charset
AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
# Don not allow any pages to be framed - Defends against CSRF
Header set X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN
# Turn on IE8-IE9 XSS prevention tools
Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block"
# Only allow JavaScript from the same domain to be run.
# Don not allow inline JavaScript to run.
Header set X-Content-Security-Policy "allow 'self';"
# Prevent mime based attacks
Header set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"
# Disable server sign
ServerSignature Off
# drop Range header when more than 5 ranges. CVE-2011-3192
SetEnvIf Range (,.*?){5,} bad-range=1
RequestHeader unset Range env=bad-range
# LIMIT UPLOAD FILE SIZE TO PROTECT AGAINST DOS ATTACK. Bytes, 0-2147483647(2GB)
LimitRequestBody 2147483647
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Better website experience for IE users.
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Force the latest IE version, in various cases when it may fall back to IE7 mode
# futher details: github.com/rails/rails/commit/123eb25#commitcomment-118920
# Use ChromeFrame if it's installed for a better experience for the poor IE folks
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
  Header set X-UA-Compatible "IE=Edge,chrome=1"
  # mod_headers cannnot match by content-type, but we don't want to send this header on *everything*...
  <FilesMatch "\.(js|css|gif|png|jpe?g|pdf|xml|oga|ogg|m4a|ogv|mp4|m4v|webm|svg|svgz|eot|ttf|otf|woff|ico|webp|appcache|manifest|htc|crx|oex|xpi|safariextz|vcf)$" >
    Header unset X-UA-Compatible
  </FilesMatch>
  # Header set P3P "policyref="/w3c/p3p.xml", CP="NOI DSP COR NID CUR ADM DEV OUR BUS""
  # OR THIS, SIMPLER
  # Header set P3P "policyref="/w3c/p3p.xml""
</IfModule>
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Cross-domain AJAX requests, ENABLE CSRF first (see above)
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Serve cross-domain Ajax requests, disabled by default. Enable-cors.org
# code.google.com/p/html5security/wiki/CrossOriginRequestSecurity
#  <IfModule mod_headers.c>
#    Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
#  </IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# CORS-enabled images (@crossorigin)
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Send CORS headers if browsers request them; enabled by default for images.
# futher details:
# - developer.mozilla.org/en/CORS_Enabled_Image
# - blog.chromium.org/2011/07/using-cross-domain-images-in-webgl-and.html
# - hacks.mozilla.org/2011/11/using-cors-to-load-webgl-textures-from-cross-domain-images/
# - wiki.mozilla.org/Security/Reviews/crossoriginAttribute
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
  <IfModule mod_headers.c>
    # mod_headers, y u no match by Content-Type?!
    <FilesMatch "\.(gif|png|jpe?g|svg|svgz|ico|webp)$">
      SetEnvIf Origin ":" IS_CORS
      Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*" env=IS_CORS
    </FilesMatch>
  </IfModule>
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Webfont access
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow access from all domains for webfonts.Alternatively you could only whitelist your
# subdomains like "subdomain.example.com".
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
  <FilesMatch "\.(ttf|ttc|otf|eot|woff|font.css)$">
    Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
  </FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Proper MIME type for all files
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# JavaScript
# Normalize to standard type (it is sniffed in IE anyways)
# futher details: tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329#section-7.2
AddType application/javascript         js jsonp
AddType application/json               json
#
# Audio
#
AddType audio/ogg                      oga ogg
AddType audio/mp4                      m4a f4a f4b
#
# Video
#
AddType video/ogg                      ogv
AddType video/mp4                      mp4 m4v f4v f4p
AddType video/webm                     webm
AddType video/x-flv                    flv
#
# SVG
# Required for svg webfonts on iPad
# futher details: twitter.com/FontSquirrel/status/14855840545
#
AddType     image/svg+xml              svg svgz
AddEncoding gzip                       svgz
#
# Webfonts
#
AddType application/vnd.ms-fontobject  eot
AddType application/x-font-ttf         ttf ttc
AddType font/opentype                  otf
AddType application/x-font-woff        woff
#
# Assorted types
#
AddType image/x-icon                        ico
AddType image/webp                          webp
AddType text/cache-manifest                 appcache manifest
AddType text/x-component                    htc
AddType application/xml                     rss atom xml rdf
AddType application/x-chrome-extension      crx
AddType application/x-opera-extension       oex
AddType application/x-xpinstall             xpi
AddType application/octet-stream            safariextz
AddType application/x-web-app-manifest+json webapp
AddType text/x-vcard                        vcf
AddType application/x-shockwave-flash       swf
AddType text/vtt                            vtt
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow concatenation from within specific js and css files
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# e.g. Inside of script.combined.js you could have
#   <!--#include file="libs/jquery-1.5.0.min.js" -->
#   <!--#include file="plugins/jquery.idletimer.js" -->
# and they would be included into this single file.
# This is not in use in the boilerplate as it stands. You may
# choose to use this technique if you do not have a build process.
#<FilesMatch "\.combined\.js$">
#  Options +Includes
#  AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES application/javascript application/json
#  SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
#</FilesMatch>
#<FilesMatch "\.combined\.css$">
#  Options +Includes
#  AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES text/css
#  SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
#</FilesMatch>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Gzip compression
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_gzip.c>
    mod_gzip_on       Yes
    mod_gzip_dechunk  Yes
    mod_gzip_item_include file      .(html?|txt|css|js|php|pl)$
    mod_gzip_item_include handler   ^cgi-script$
    mod_gzip_item_include mime      ^text/.*
    mod_gzip_item_include mime      ^application/x-javascript.*
    mod_gzip_item_exclude mime      ^image/.*
    mod_gzip_item_exclude rspheader ^Content-Encoding:.*gzip.*
</IfModule>
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
  # Force deflate for mangled headers developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/posts/2010/12/pushing-beyond-gzipping/
  <IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
      SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
      RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
    </IfModule>
  </IfModule>
  # Compress all output labeled with one of the following MIME-types
  <IfModule mod_filter.c>
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom+xml \
                                  application/javascript \
                                  application/json \
                                  application/rss+xml \
                                  application/vnd.ms-fontobject \
                                  application/x-font-ttf \
                                  application/xhtml+xml \
                                  application/xml \
                                  font/opentype \
                                  image/svg+xml \
                                  image/x-icon \
                                  text/css \
                                  text/html \
                                  text/plain \
                                  text/x-component \
                                  text/xml
  </IfModule>
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Expires headers (for better cache control)
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# These are pretty far-future expires headers.
# They assume you control versioning with filename-based cache busting
# Additionally, consider that outdated proxies may miscache
# futher details: www.stevesouders.com/blog/2008/08/23/revving-filenames-dont-use-querystring/
# If you don nott use filenames to version, lower the CSS and JS to something like "access plus 1 week".
# 1 YEAR - does not change often
<FilesMatch "\.(flv|ico|pdf|avi|mov|ppt|doc|mp3|wmv|wav)$">
  ExpiresDefault A29030400
</FilesMatch>
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
  ExpiresActive on
#
# Perhaps better to whitelist expires rules? Perhaps.
#
  ExpiresDefault                          "access plus 1 month"
#
# cache.appcache needs re-requests in FF 3.6 (thanks Remy ~Introducing HTML5)
#
  ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest       "access plus 0 seconds"
#
# Your document html
#
ExpiresByType text/html                 "access plus 0 seconds"
#
# Data
#
  ExpiresByType text/xml                  "access plus 0 seconds"
  ExpiresByType application/xml           "access plus 0 seconds"
  ExpiresByType application/json          "access plus 0 seconds"
#
# Feed
#
  ExpiresByType application/rss+xml       "access plus 1 hour"
  ExpiresByType application/atom+xml      "access plus 1 hour"
#
# Favicon (cannot be renamed)
#
  ExpiresByType image/x-icon              "access plus 1 month"
#
# Media: images, video, audio
#
  ExpiresByType image/gif                 "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType image/png                 "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType image/jpeg                "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType video/ogg                 "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType audio/ogg                 "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType video/mp4                 "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType video/webm                "access plus 1 month"
#
# HTC files  (css3pie)
#
  ExpiresByType text/x-component          "access plus 1 month"
#
# Webfonts
#
  ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf    "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType font/opentype             "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType application/x-font-woff   "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType image/svg+xml             "access plus 1 month"
  ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject "access plus 1 month"
#
# CSS and JavaScript
#
  ExpiresByType text/css                  "access plus 1 year"
  ExpiresByType application/javascript    "access plus 1 year"
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent mobile network providers from modifying your site
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following header prevents modification of your code over 3G on some
# European providers.
# This is the official 'bypass' suggested by O2 in the UK.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header set Cache-Control "no-transform"
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# ETag removal
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# FileETag None is not enough for every server.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
  Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
# Since we are sending far-future expires, we don not need ETags for
# static content.
# futher details: developer.yahoo.com/performance/rules.html#etags
FileETag None
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Stop screen flicker in IE on CSS rollovers
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following directives stop screen flicker in IE on CSS rollovers - in
# combination with the "ExpiresByType" rules for images (see above).
BrowserMatch "MSIE" brokenvary=1
BrowserMatch "Mozilla/4.[0-9]{2}" brokenvary=1
BrowserMatch "Opera" !brokenvary
SetEnvIf brokenvary 1 force-no-vary
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set Keep-Alive Header
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Keep-Alive allows the server to send multiple requests through one
# TCP-connection. Be aware of possible disadvantages of this setting. Turn on
# if you serve a lot of static content.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header set Connection Keep-Alive
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Cookie setting from iframes
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow cookies to be set from iframes (for IE only)
# If needed, specify a path or regex in the Location directive.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
#   Header set P3P "policyref=\"/w3c/p3p.xml\", CP=\"IDC DSP COR ADM DEVi TAIi PSA PSD IVAi IVDi CONi HIS OUR IND CNT\""
# </IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Start rewrite engine
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Turning on the rewrite engine is necessary for the following rules and
# features. FollowSymLinks must be enabled for this to work.
# Some cloud hosting services require RewriteBase to be set: goo.gl/HOcPN
# If using the h5bp in a subdirectory, use `RewriteBase /foo` instead where
# 'foo' is your directory.
# If your web host does not allow the FollowSymlinks option, you may need to
# comment it out and use `Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch`, but be aware of the
# performance impact: http://goo.gl/Mluzd
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
    RewriteEngine On
    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteBase /
    # 
    ## Force public directory for the rood of websites ##
    # Change ptsource.github to be your primary domain.
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www.)?ptsource.github$
    #
    # Change 'subfolder' to be the folder you will use for your primary domain.
    #
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/repositories/
    #
    # Do not change this line.
    #
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f 
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    #
    # Change 'subfolder' to be the folder you will use for your primary domain.
    #
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ /repositories/$1
    # Change ptsource.github to be your primary domain again. 
    # Change 'subfolder' to be the folder you will use for your primary domain 
    # followed by / then the main file for your site, index.php, index.html, etc.
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www.)?ptsource.github$
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://ptsource.github/$1 [R,L]
    #
    ## Remove Extensions ##
    # change the .php extension with whatever you need
    #
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.php -f
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ $1.php
    #
    ## Remove Bad Bots from crawling ##
    # IF THE UA STARTS WITH THESE
    # Block spambots
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(aesop_com_spiderman|alexibot|backweb|bandit|batchftp|bigfoot) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(black.?hole|blackwidow|blowfish|botalot|buddy|builtbottough|bullseye) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(cheesebot|cherrypicker|chinaclaw|collector|copier|copyrightcheck) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(cosmos|crescent|curl|custo|da|diibot|disco|dittospyder|dragonfly) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(drip|easydl|ebingbong|ecatch|eirgrabber|emailcollector|emailsiphon) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(emailwolf|erocrawler|exabot|eyenetie|filehound|flashget|flunky) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(frontpage|getright|getweb|go.?zilla|go-ahead-got-it|gotit|grabnet) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(grafula|harvest|hloader|hmview|httplib|httrack|humanlinks|ilsebot) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(infonavirobot|infotekies|intelliseek|interget|iria|jennybot|jetcar) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(joc|justview|jyxobot|kenjin|keyword|larbin|leechftp|lexibot|lftp|libweb) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(likse|linkscan|linkwalker|lnspiderguy|lwp|magnet|mag-net|markwatch) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(mata.?hari|memo|microsoft.?url|midown.?tool|miixpc|mirror|missigua) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(mister.?pix|moget|mozilla.?newt|nameprotect|navroad|backdoorbot|nearsite) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(net.?vampire|netants|netcraft|netmechanic|netspider|nextgensearchbot) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(attach|nicerspro|nimblecrawler|npbot|octopus|offline.?explorer) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(offline.?navigator|openfind|outfoxbot|pagegrabber|papa|pavuk) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(pcbrowser|php.?version.?tracker|pockey|propowerbot|prowebwalker) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(psbot|pump|queryn|recorder|realdownload|reaper|reget|true_robot) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(repomonkey|rma|internetseer|sitesnagger|siphon|slysearch|smartdownload) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(snake|snapbot|snoopy|sogou|spacebison|spankbot|spanner|sqworm|superbot) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(superhttp|surfbot|asterias|suzuran|szukacz|takeout|teleport) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(telesoft|the.?intraformant|thenomad|tighttwatbot|titan|urldispatcher) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(turingos|turnitinbot|urly.?warning|vacuum|vci|voideye|whacker) [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(libwww-perl|widow|wisenutbot|wwwoffle|xaldon|xenu|zeus|zyborg|anonymouse) [NC,OR]
    #
    ## STARTS WITH WEB
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^web(zip|emaile|enhancer|fetch|go.?is|auto|bandit|clip|copier|master|reaper|sauger|site.?quester|whack) [NC,OR]
    #
    ## ANYWHERE IN UA -- GREEDY REGEX
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(craftbot|download|extract|stripper|sucker|ninja|clshttp|webspider|leacher|collector|grabber|webpictures).*$ [NC]
    #
    ## ISSUE 403 / SERVE ERRORDOCUMENT
    #
    RewriteRule . - [F,L]
    #
    ## Useragents starting with
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^atraxbot [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Azureus [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^geohasher [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^PycURL [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Python-urllib [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^research-scan-bot [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Sosospider [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Wget [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^xenu [NC,OR]
    #
    ## User agents contains string
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*casper [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*goblox [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*sun4u [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [F]
    #
    ## Disable blank UA
    ## Blank UA and Referer
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^$ [NC]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [NC]
    RewriteRule .* - [F,L]
    #
    ## Prevent use of specified methods in HTTP Request
    #
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(HEAD|TRACE|DELETE|TRACK) [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out use of illegal or unsafe characters in the HTTP Request
    #
    RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^.*(\\r|\\n|%0A|%0D).* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out use of illegal or unsafe characters in the Referer Variable of the HTTP Request
    ## RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^(.*)(<|>|'|'|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).* [NC,OR]
    ## Block out use of illegal or unsafe characters in any cookie associated with the HTTP Request
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} ^.*(<|>|'|'|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out use of illegal characters in URI or use of malformed URI
    #
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(,|;|:|<|>|">|"<|/|\\\.\.\\).{0,9999}.* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out  use of empty User Agent Strings
    ## NOTE - disable this rule if your site is integrated with Payment Gateways such as PayPal
    ## RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
    ## Block out  use of illegal or unsafe characters in the User Agent variable
    #
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(<|>|'|'|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Measures to block out  SQL injection attacks
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^.*(;|<|>|'|"|"|'|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|cast|set|declare|drop|update|md5|benchmark).* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out  reference to localhost/loopback/127.0.0.1 in the Query String
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^.*(localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1).* [NC,OR]
    #
    ## Block out  use of illegal or unsafe characters in the Query String variable
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^.*(<|>|'|'|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).* [NC]
    #
    ########## Begin - File injection protection, by SigSiu.net
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [OR]
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
    RewriteRule .* - [F]
    ########## End - File injection protection
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http%3A%2F%2F [OR]
    #
    # proc/self/environ? no way!
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc\/self\/environ [NC,OR]
    #
    ## PHP-CGI Vulnerability
    #
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^(%2d|\-)[^=]+$ [NC]
    RewriteRule (.*) - [F,L]
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Suppress or force the "www." at the beginning of URLs
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# The same content should never be available under two different URLs -
# especially not with and without "www." at the beginning, since this can cause
# SEO problems (duplicate content). That is why you should choose one of the
# alternatives and redirect the other one.
# By default option 1 (no "www.") is activated.
# no-www.org/faq.php?q=class_b
# If you would prefer to use option 2, just comment out all option 1 lines
# and uncomment option 2.
# IMPORTANT: NEVER USE BOTH RULES AT THE SAME TIME!
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Option 1:
# Rewrite "www.example.com -> example.com".
#<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
#  RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
#  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
#  RewriteRule ^ http://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
#</IfModule>
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Option 2:
# Rewrite "example.com -> www.example.com".
# Be aware that the following rule might not be a good idea if you use "real"
# subdomains for certain parts of your website.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
   RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
   RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\..+$ [NC]
   RewriteRule ^ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
</IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Built-in filename-based cache busting
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# If you are not using the build script to manage your filename version revving,
# you might want to consider enabling this, which will route requests for
# `/css/style.20110203.css` to `/css/style.css`.
# To understand why this is important and a better idea than all.css?v1231,
# please refer to the bundled documentation about `.htaccess`.
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
#   RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
#   RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
#   RewriteRule ^(.+)\.(\d+)\.(js|css|png|jpg|gif)$ $1.$3 [L]
# </IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent SSL cert warnings
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rewrite secure requests properly to prevent SSL cert warnings, e.g. prevent
# https://www.example.com when your cert only allows https://secure.example.com
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
#   RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443
#   RewriteRule ^ https://example-domain-please-change-me.com%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
# </IfModule>
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent 404 errors for non-existing redirected folders
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# without -MultiViews, Apache will give a 404 for a rewrite if a folder of the
# same name does not exist.
# webmasterworld.com/apache/3808792.htm
Options -MultiViews
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Custom Errors page
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# You can add custom pages to handle 500 or 403 pretty easily, if you like.
# If you are hosting your site in subdirectory, adjust this accordingly
#    e.g. ErrorDocument 404 /subdir/404.html
ErrorDocument 100 /100_CONTINUE
ErrorDocument 101 /101_SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS
ErrorDocument 102 /102_PROCESSING
ErrorDocument 200 /200_OK
ErrorDocument 201 /201_CREATED
ErrorDocument 202 /202_ACCEPTED
ErrorDocument 203 /203_NON_AUTHORITATIVE
ErrorDocument 204 /204_NO_CONTENT
ErrorDocument 205 /205_RESET_CONTENT
ErrorDocument 206 /206_PARTIAL_CONTENT
ErrorDocument 207 /207_MULTI_STATUS
ErrorDocument 300 /300_MULTIPLE_CHOICES
ErrorDocument 301 /301_MOVED_PERMANENTLY
ErrorDocument 302 /302_MOVED_TEMPORARILY
ErrorDocument 303 /303_SEE_OTHER
ErrorDocument 304 /304_NOT_MODIFIED
ErrorDocument 305 /305_USE_PROXY
ErrorDocument 307 /307_TEMPORARY_REDIRECT
ErrorDocument 400 /400_BAD_REQUEST
ErrorDocument 401 /401_UNAUTHORIZED
ErrorDocument 402 /402_PAYMENT_REQUIRED
ErrorDocument 403 /403_FORBIDDEN
ErrorDocument 404 /404_NOT_FOUND
ErrorDocument 405 /405_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED
ErrorDocument 406 /406_NOT_ACCEPTABLE
ErrorDocument 407 /407_PROXY_AUTHENTICATION_REQUIRED
ErrorDocument 408 /408_REQUEST_TIME_OUT
ErrorDocument 409 /409_CONFLICT
ErrorDocument 410 /410_GONE
ErrorDocument 411 /411_LENGTH_REQUIRED
ErrorDocument 412 /412_PRECONDITION_FAILED
ErrorDocument 413 /413_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE
ErrorDocument 414 /414_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE
ErrorDocument 415 /415_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE
ErrorDocument 416 /416_RANGE_NOT_SATISFIABLE
ErrorDocument 417 /417_EXPECTATION_FAILED
ErrorDocument 422 /422_UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY
ErrorDocument 423 /423_LOCKED
ErrorDocument 424 /424_FAILED_DEPENDENCY
ErrorDocument 426 /426_UPGRADE_REQUIRED
ErrorDocument 500 /500_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR
ErrorDocument 501 /501_NOT_IMPLEMENTED
ErrorDocument 502 /502_BAD_GATEWAY
ErrorDocument 503 /503_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE
ErrorDocument 504 /504_GATEWAY_TIME_OUT
ErrorDocument 505 /505_VERSION_NOT_SUPPORTED
ErrorDocument 506 /506_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES
ErrorDocument 507 /507_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE
ErrorDocument 510 /510_NOT_EXTENDED
#
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# A little more security
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# To avoid displaying the exact version number of Apache being used, add the
# following to httpd.conf (it will not work in .htaccess):
# ServerTokens Prod
IndexIgnore *
# "-Indexes" will have Apache block users from browsing folders without a
# default document Usually you should leave this activated, because you
# should not allow everybody to surf through every folder on your server (which
# includes rather private places like CMS system folders).
<IfModule mod_autoindex.c>
  Options -Indexes
  Options -ExecCGI
</IfModule>
# Block access to "hidden" directories or files whose names begin with a
# period. This includes directories used by version control systems such as
# Subversion or Git.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
  RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
  RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
  RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]
</IfModule>
# Block access to backup and source files. These files may be left by some
# text/html editors and pose a great security danger, when anyone can access
# them.
<FilesMatch "(\.(bak|config|sql|fla|psd|ini|log|sh|inc|swp|dist)|~)$">
  Order allow,deny
  Deny from all
  Satisfy All
</FilesMatch>
AddHandler cgi-script .pl .py .asp .shtml .sh .cgi
# optional logging.
# CustomLog insert-path-and-name-of-log common env=bad-range
# If your server is not already configured as such, the following directive
# should be uncommented in order to set PHP is register_globals option to OFF.
# This closes a major security hole that is abused by most XSS (cross-site
# scripting) attacks. For more information: http://php.net/register_globals
#
# ---------------------------------------------------------------
# PHP DEDICATED RULES
# DO NOT USE THEM IF YOU DON'T USE PHP
# ---------------------------------------------------------------
# IF REGISTER_GLOBALS DIRECTIVE CAUSES 500 INTERNAL SERVER ERRORS:
#
# Your server does not allow PHP directives to be set via .htaccess. In that
# case you must make this change in your php.ini file instead. If you are
# using a commercial web host, contact the administrators for assistance in
# doing this. Not all servers allow local php.ini files, and they should
# include all PHP configurations (not just this one), or you will effectively
# reset everything to PHP defaults. Consult www.php.net for more detailed
# information about setting PHP directives.
# php_flag register_globals Off
# Rename session cookie to something else, than PHPSESSID
# php_value session.name XGOSID
# Disable magic quotes (This feature has been DEPRECATED as of PHP 5.3.0 and REMOVED as of PHP 5.4.0.)
# php_flag magic_quotes_gpc Off
# Do not show you are using PHP
# Note: Move this line to php.ini since it wont work in .htaccess
# php_flag expose_php Off
# Level of log detail - log all errors
# php_value error_reporting -1
# Write errors to log file
# php_flag log_errors On
# Do not display errors in browser (production - Off, development - On)
# php_flag display_errors Off
# Do not display startup errors (production - Off, development - On)
# php_flag display_startup_errors Off
# Format errors in plain text
# Note: Leave this setting 'On' for xdebug is var_dump() output
# php_flag html_errors Off
# Show multiple occurrence of error
# php_flag ignore_repeated_errors Off
# Show same errors from different sources
# php_flag ignore_repeated_source Off
# Size limit for error messages
# php_value log_errors_max_len 1024
# Don not precede error with string (does not accept empty string, use whitespace if you need)
# php_value error_prepend_string " "
# Don not prepend to error (does not accept empty string, use whitespace if you need)
# php_value error_append_string " "

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